What is a Sole Trader and How to Set Up as a Sole Trader UK


In the United Kingdom, the option of becoming a sole trader as a foreigner is a viable path for those looking to start their own business. As a sole trader, you operate your business as an individual and are personally responsible for its success and any liabilities incurred. The process of becoming a sole trader in the UK is relatively straightforward, although there are certain considerations and steps to follow.

While it may not be without its challenges, particularly regarding tax and legal obligations, the HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) provides clear guidelines and support for individuals seeking to establish themselves as sole traders in the UK. Understanding these basics is crucial for anyone considering this route to entrepreneurship.

What is a Sole Trader?

A sole trader, also known as a sole proprietor, is an individual who runs their own business as a self-employed entity. As a sole trader, you are the sole owner of the business and have complete control over its operations and decision-making processes. 

This business structure is one of the simplest and most common forms of business ownership in the UK. As a sole trader, you can offer goods or services to customers, enter into contracts, and make business decisions independently. 

However, it’s essential to note that as a sole trader, you are personally liable for any debts or losses incurred by the business, which means your personal assets could be at risk if the business fails. 

Understanding the responsibilities and benefits of operating as a sole trader is fundamental for anyone considering this business structure.

Simple and inexpensive to set up: There’s minimal bureaucracy involved in becoming a sole trader.

Complete control: The owner has an absolute say in how the business is run.

Profits and losses: All the business’s profits belong to the owner, but they’re also personally responsible for covering any losses.

Unlimited liability: This is a major downside. If the business runs into debt, the owner’s personal assets (like their house or car) could be at risk to cover those debts.

What is a Sole Trader in Business?

If you earned more than £1,000 from self-employment in the past tax year, which runs from 6 April to 5 April every year, you are required to register as a sole trader with HMRC. 

This requirement applies regardless of whether your business is a full-time venture or a part-time side hustle. It’s crucial to register by 5 October after the end of the tax year during which you became self-employed to avoid potential fines.

How to set up as a sole trader

The process of setting up and registering as a sole trader is quite simple:

Choose a business name: Select a name for your business that reflects your brand and is not already in use by another entity.


Register as a sole trader with HMRC: Complete the necessary registration forms with HMRC to inform them of your self-employment status and tax obligations.


Register for VAT with HMRC if applicable: If your business turnover is over £85,000, you must also register for Value Added Tax (VAT) with HMRC.


Register as an employer if you have employees: If you have employees working for your business, you need to register as an employer with HMRC and fulfill your obligations regarding payroll and National Insurance contributions.

Register as an employer if you have employees

Obtain necessary licences and permits: Depending on the nature of your business, you may require specific licences or permits to operate legally. Ensure you obtain all necessary documentation.


Acquire any required qualifications or registrations: Certain trades or professions may require specific qualifications or registrations. Make sure you have the necessary credentials to operate within your chosen industry.


How to Register Business Name Sole Trader?

When establishing yourself as a sole trader, you have the flexibility to choose whether to operate under your own name or under a different business name. Registering your business name is not a mandatory requirement for sole traders in the UK. Here’s a breakdown of the process:

How to Register Business Name Sole Trader
  1. Naming your business: 

As a sole trader, you have the option to trade under your personal name or select a distinct business name. If you opt for a business name, it’s essential to ensure it complies with certain regulations. 

For instance, your business name cannot include terms like ‘limited’, ‘Ltd’, ‘limited liability partnership’, ‘LLP’, ‘public limited company’, or ‘plc’. Additionally, it must not be offensive or contain sensitive words or expressions without proper authorization.

  1. Including your name and business name: 

Regardless of whether you choose to operate under your own name or a business name, it’s necessary to include this information on official documents such as invoices and letters. This transparency helps maintain clarity and professionalism in your business transactions.

  1. Permissions for sensitive words or expressions: 

If your chosen business name contains a ‘sensitive’ word or expression or implies a connection with government or local authorities, you may need to seek permission. For example, using terms like ‘Accredited’ in your business name requires authorization from the Department for Business and Trade (DBT).

  1. VAT registration: 

While registering your business name itself is not mandatory, you must register for Value Added Tax (VAT) if your business turnover exceeds £85,000. Voluntary registration for VAT is also an option if it aligns with your business strategy, particularly if you sell to other VAT-registered businesses and wish to reclaim VAT.

  1. Compliance with industry-specific regulations: 

Depending on the nature of your business, you may need to register with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) for the Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) if you operate within the construction industry as a subcontractor or contractor.

HMRC Sole Trader Registration

Registering as a sole trader with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) is a pivotal step for individuals embarking on self-employment ventures in the UK. Regardless of whether your business is a full-time endeavor or a part-time side hustle if you’ve earned more than £1,000 from self-employment in the past tax year (running from 6 April to 5 April every year), 

HMRC mandates that you register as a sole trader. This requirement underscores the importance of fulfilling your tax obligations and ensuring compliance with UK tax laws, irrespective of the scale or nature of your entrepreneurial pursuits. 

By registering with HMRC as a sole trader, you initiate the process of formalizing your business activities and gain access to essential resources and support to navigate the complexities of self-employment taxation.

Do Sole Traders Need to Register with Companies House?

Sole traders in the UK do not need to register with Companies House. Unlike limited companies, which are required by law to register with Companies House, sole traders operate under their own name or a chosen business name without the need for formal registration. 

As a sole trader, you are essentially self-employed and do not have a separate legal entity from your business. Therefore, there is no legal obligation to register with Companies House. However, it’s crucial to understand that while sole traders do not register with Companies House, they are still required to register for Self Assessment with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) and fulfill their tax obligations accordingly. 

This distinction is important for sole traders to ensure compliance with UK regulations and maintain the integrity of their business operations.

Do Sole Traders Have a Company Number?

Sole Trader VS Self Self-Employed

When comparing sole traders and self-employed individuals in the UK, it’s essential to understand the distinctions:

Sole Trader VS Self Self-Employed

Legal Structure: Sole traders operate their businesses as individuals, whereas self-employed individuals may operate as sole traders or within other business structures, such as partnerships or limited companies.

Taxation: Sole traders are subject to income tax on their profits and must register for Self Assessment with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC). Self-employed individuals also face similar tax obligations but may have different reporting requirements based on their specific business structure.

Liability: Sole traders are personally liable for the debts and obligations of their businesses, while the liability of self-employed individuals may vary depending on their chosen business structure and legal arrangements.


Sole Trader


Legal Structure

Operates as an individual

Can operate as a sole trader or other structures


Subject to income tax and Self Assessment

Subject to income tax with varying reporting requirements


Personally liable for business debts

Liability may vary based on business structure

Contact us & Achieve Financial Success

Can a Foreigner Be a Sole Trader in the UK?

Foreigners can indeed operate as sole traders in the United Kingdom. The UK welcomes individuals from around the world to engage in entrepreneurial activities and contribute to its economy. Whether you’re an EU citizen, a non-EU citizen with the right to work in the UK, or even residing overseas, you can establish yourself as a sole trader in the UK. 

However, there are certain legal and tax considerations that foreign sole traders must be aware of, such as obtaining the necessary visas or permits to work in the UK legally and complying with UK tax regulations. Additionally, understanding the implications of operating as a sole trader, including taxation and liability, is essential for foreign entrepreneurs looking to establish their businesses in the UK market. 

With proper planning and adherence to relevant regulations, foreigners can successfully navigate the process of becoming sole traders in the UK and pursue their entrepreneurial ambitions.

Closing Note

Becoming a sole trader in the UK offers both domestic residents and foreigners alike the opportunity to pursue entrepreneurial endeavors and contribute to the vibrant business landscape of the country. While the process of registering as a sole trader and navigating tax obligations may seem daunting, the support and resources provided by HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) and other relevant authorities can help individuals navigate these challenges successfully. 

Support Centre Contact Details

Our customer care team at Evirtual Accountants will respond to your queries as soon as possible. We aim to provide you with the best possible service and look forward to hearing from you soon.

  • Head Office: +44 1217 835392 
  • Email: office@evirtualaccountants.co.uk 
  • Address: 862-864 Washwood Heath Rd, Ward End, Birmingham, B8 2NG
  • Opening times: 9:00 am – 5:30 pm, Monday to Friday. 

Table of Contents

Secure Your Financial Future 
Get the Professional Accounting & Tax Management Services
Book An Appointment